You are expected to know very little about protons aside from their relative charges and masses.
You are, of course, expected to know that protons are found in the nucleus, which is why they (along with neutrons) are nucleons.
You must also recognise that the Atomic Number (or Proton Number) of an element is the number of Protons in its nucleus.
Later in the course you will study acids and learn to define them as proton-donors. However, since Hydrogen atom has only one Proton and one Electron an H+ ion is simply a Proton.